Plants store essential oils either in external secretory structures, which are found on the surface of the plant, or internal secretory structures, which are found inside the plant material. Usually with plants that have external secretory structures, you just have to lightly touch them and you will notice an aroma imparted to your skin. With plants that have internal secretory structures, you may need to break the leaf or seed in order to get to the aroma/essential oil.

To answer your questions I have to answer #2 first. Jena is right – there are a limited number of distilleries, D. Gary Young owns 1/3 of them. The products distilled to make EOs are like the contents of tea – they can be distilled multiple times but each time you do so the product you get is progressively weaker. Companies like doTERRA and Young Living only take the 1st distillation which is the strongest and most pure. They label their product therapeutic grade and 100% pure because they have run it through a mass spectrometer and have calculated the constituents in each bottle. Young Living actually refuses to sell any bottle of EO that does not meet their requirements for purity. Less expensive companies use the 2nd, 3rd, and even 5th and 6th distillation. They also dilute their products before marketing them. So it is important to know about the company you are buying from and what distillation they use. Not all distillations are equal.


Allelopathy occurs when a plant releases chemicals to prevent competing vegetation from growing within its area or zone. An often-cited example is in southern California, home to the dominant shrubs Salvia leucophylla (sage bush) and Artemisia californica (a type of sage). Both species release allelopathic terpenoids, eucalyptol and camphor, into the surrounding area, which effectively prevents other plant species from growing around them. This is allelopathy. Chemicals that deter competing growth (terpenes, for example) are referred to as allelochemics.

In looking at your map, it would only be fair to mention that Young Living oils are multi-level marketed (as are DoTerra). I feel this explains their dominance. I’m sure the quality is there, but those are two brands I refuse to purchase because I feel they are WAY overpriced and over-pushed. I have read many essential oil blogs and narrowed my purchases mainly to Mountain Rose Herbs and a few Rocky Mountain Oils. I live in Tennessee and have them shipped to me. I have run into Whole Foods and bought a couple NOW oils in a pinch and would also purchase Edens Garden or Plant Therapy oils locally, in a pinch. Thank you for your research and sharing!

Ordered 2 more bottles of frank and lavender. I should just subscribe to automatic orders. I want everyone to know how wonderful this companies oils are, and the customer service is because I do not want them to ever have to go out of business. I have a child with CP and have been on a mission for 11 years now to search natural cures and it seems even the natural organic sellers/companies are almost unaffordable which to me is very disappointing. I know you get what you pay for most of the time, but things still should be somewhat affordable. And the oils this company provides is not only affordable but great quality. Thank you again and do not ever stop providing us with great service!!!!
The primary constituents are listed, but not in any proportion and I haven’t the foggiest what specific gravity, refractive index, or optical rotation levels are appropriate for what I’m doing (natural perfumery). Steffen Arctander’s “Perfume and Flavor Materials of Natural Origin” is a big help overall, but I was wondering if you could comment on this.
Every one of the oils we tested offered their own unique signatures of aroma, and with this very subjective task we have undertaken, it made finding the best essential oils an extremely difficult project. Our criteria was strict and our noses were ready for the challenge. When it comes to your health we didn’t want to let money be a deterrent for finding you the truly best.
Although, there is a method to extract essential oil into a carrier oil. It’s called “infusion”. Herbs are placed in a jar, and the jar is filled with just enough oil to cover the herbs. After at least 2 weeks, the herbs are strained out and you’re left with an infused oil! Sometimes, fresh herbs are placed into the infused oil to make it extra-strong. Infusion produces a very mild oil, though, and there’s no need to dilute it.
According to the FDA, an essential oil only has to be 5% pure to label themselves as 100% pure. That’s why some say they are safe for internal use while others aren’t. The ones that say that you should not take them internally most likely have other things in them that make them unsafe for taking internally. For therapeutic reasons, and internal use, you should find a company that actually uses 100% pure oils. Also, undiluted essential oils do not expire. It’s the ones that have other contaminants in them that expire. If it has an expiration date or says you should not take any of their oils internally, those would be warning signs.

You see with the rise in the popularity and increasing understanding of the effectiveness of the use of essential oils in aromatherapy, several large  direct and multi-level marketing (MLM) companies have moved into the field.  As with any company of this type, they have a very real need to differentiate themselves one from others in the field as well as from traditional businesses.
Bedwetting could be due to a number of reasons. However one, that is not commonly looked at is Breathing issues. my husband is an holistic dentist and part of treatment for early ortho is Breathing…If the child is a mouth breather often he will not be getting the right ratio of oxygen to carbon dioxide causing all sorts of developmental problems..Bedwetting is helped or completely eliminated when addressed as such…. A small piece of micropore tape over the mouth at nights works wonders. Also there are mouth guard type appliances which help (you can get these from some dentists. Hope this helps Judi
Great post! I am a lover/addict of essential oils and I found it interesting that you said NOT to take essential oils internally.  There are several oils that I take internally daily, in fact, it is highly recommended per Young Living to do so.  The oils I use are from Young Living and I put them in my water, coffee, on a piece of bread and I cook with them since they are more potent than herbs and their frequency is greater.

I might suggest keeping them in a drawer, a box with a lid or somewhere safe like that. I use them daily…one mix for my pillow cases for whatever I feel like balancing in my “self” overnight. The diffuser on my husbands side of the bed (he has had sinus problems) has detox, immune system builders and things for respiratory relief. He sleeps like a baby now. Also helped him with headaches.


For each profiled oil, you will find information on its botanical name, common method of extraction, oil color, oil consistency, perfumery note, strength of the initial aroma, aromatic description, uses, constituents, and safety information. For most information provided, the data is based on the review of particular samples and could differ from your personal experience. As the uses, constituents and safety information data are subjects requiring research, specific references are provided.
Can you use essential oils for shingles? Shingles results in a painful, itchy rash that can lead to blistering and permanent nerve damage. Medications can treat the condition, but many people also explore home remedies and alternative ways to alleviate symptoms. Here, learn which essential oils may help, including peppermint, thyme, and geranium oils. Read now
Some essential oils can be taken internally. The specific one I am thinking of is peppermint EO. It is known to treat IBS in several studies and can be taken also to combat headaches as well. Of course a topical application near the stomach and tummy is also known to be effect and application to the bottom of the feet can help reduce fever. I am currently in the process of making a guide based on symptoms to help people pick essential oils based on application.
I could go on to describe exactly what I smell, but, like I said, this is my first meeting and my brain needs to sit with it and dissect it. I will just say that it is very complex. Because people describe it as being similar to valerian, I thought there was a good chance that I'd hate it as much as valerian. Just the complexity in itself is interesting and alluring to me, and the elements that I can pick out and name are all ones that I like.
Certain essential oils are safe to use during pregnancy, but care must be taken when selecting quality and brand.[51] Some essential oils may contain impurities and additives that may be harmful to pregnant women. Sensitivity to certain smells may cause pregnant women to have adverse side effects with essential oil use, such as headache, vertigo, and nausea. Pregnant women often report an abnormal sensitivity to smells and taste,[52] and essential oils can cause irritation and nausea when ingested. Always consult a doctor before use.
Developing essential oil standards for essential oil therapy/aromatherapy has been discussed in several circles over the years, but because of cost of administration, setting up labs, certifying them and the analysis cost all by itself, it has turned out to be an overwhelming task and cost that only a well-organized and well funded organization could handle. But, an organizational attempt to deal with the analytical and administrative challenge for self-regulation would be desirable before essential oil therapy/aromatherapy looses its “therapy” from an overdose of bad oils.
Mountain Rose Herbs – (This is the brand that I use for my business and my home) All organic & pesticide-free, wild-crafted (if available), a wonderful company with great smelling essential oils, for really decent prices. This company strives to help the environment in every way and is a zero waste company. They are certified organic by OTCO and they source their essential oils from reputable distillers that they know personally and trust.
So you might be asking, what options are available then if the medicinal use of the herb should not be ascribed to the essential oils? Well, if you really want some sort of concentrated extract that will the have herbal medicine properties of the plant in a more useable form, there are products available that would be more appropriate, such as CO2 total extracts. If you are not familiar with CO2 extracts then please see my previous note on the subject for more information, What are CO2 Extracts?. Going back to our cannabis example, it would only take a very small amount (1/10 of a gram) of a cannabis CO2 total that was extracted from a high THC strain to literally knock you on your, well...... you know, and you will likely feel the effects for more than 12 hours. Of course ingesting 0.1 gram of the essential oil would do basically nothing to you other than leave a very bitter taste and dissolve some of the mucous in your mouth leaving it dry (remember essential oils are very good organic solvents). The essential oil has its value, but has to be used in the appropriate manner, and not like the herb or the CO2 extract. In the case of cannabis essential oil, it is found that using the oil in conjunction with the CO2 extract, or even in conjunction with cannabinoid isolates, in vaping applications increases the overall effectiveness in both medicinal and recreational uses. Research has shown that the terpenes of he essential oil bind to the cannabinoids in ways to enhance the benefits, which has lead to extreme interest in cannabis essential oil as of late. Some refer to this as the “entourage effect.” In summary, essential oils are beautiful products that can enhance our lives greatly, but we should be clear in our understanding of the limits of their uses. Essential oils are not drugs and they are not to be assumed to have the properties of the herbs from which they come. Everyone should do thorough research before using essential oils, herbs, and especially CO2 extracts as they are vastly more potent than the herb from which they come. Hopefully people will share this note with their friends who are using essential oils so that we can stop this age old myth from continuing to perpetuate.
Essential oils are widely used in food flavorings, and many of our foods naturally contain them anyway. So small amounts – up to one drop – are not a huge issue, thohg you still need to be aware that gastric irritation is a possibility, so make sure the oil is properly dispersed in whatever the food or excipient is. Taking oils is water is a no-no for this reason.
Let’s re-visit one point – if distillation is too long – this can increase the toxicity of the oil. This is because there will be a greater concentration of low-boiling fractions, and sometimes these include relatively toxic substances. Yet how often have I heard that commercial distilleries “shorten” distillation times for profit reasons? That genuine, therapeutic grade essential oils have to be distilled for longer, in order to extract all the important trace constituents?
I would highly recommend that anyone who is interested in essential oil toxicity to read this article regarding safety, including ingestion or neat application. I found it to be very helpful. It is a comprehensive article that was also published in an aromatherapy journal. Ron Guba, the author, is a well known Australian aromatherapist. http://www.agoraindex.org/Frag_Dem/toxicitymyths.html
TAOASIS works close with local manufacturer together which produce with loving handwork scent flowers, scent woods and vases. Especially products from german manufacturers are successful on the market at home and abroad. More and more customers are looking for a special quality, appreciate the transparent production process and the possibility to receive individual certificates.

Frankincense can be used for depression, inflammation, immunity, and to increase spiritual awareness.Today, scientists, physicians and researchers are beginning to return to the use of essential oils as a way to naturally and holistically heal our bodies. Frankincense actually has a history of medicinal use and could be quite helpful in your medicine cabinet.
But microbiome damaging effects aside, is it safe to be ingesting an extract of the essential oils from a plant? Many oils are irritant and known to cause skin sensitivity in some people, however, MLM reps are recommending you ‘add 1-2 drops to a glass of water’ and drink it. It is not fully known how essential oils are metabolised. The essential oils are the most potent substance in the plant and should be treated with far more respect. The only cases of serious harm from essential oil use have been when it has been consumed internally. On poisons.org a clinical toxicologist states that the internal use of both eucalyptus and sage oil has caused seizures.
There were only a few things I was unhappy with, but they weren't important enough to lower my rating. First, I had to use a lot of cinnamon bark oil, and I mean A LOT, in my diffuser for it to really be noticeable. It's only been two weeks, and I'm three-fourths of the way through a 30 ml bottle! As others have mentioned, the oil comes out of the droppers really fast. You have to be extra careful. Lastly, I don't care for the residue that the cinnamon bark oil leaves in my diffuser. It has turned the inside a yellow, goopy mess, and I dripped the oil onto the front of my diffuser and it completely erased the ink to all of the words and numbers!
ISO (International Organization for Standardization) is an independent, international standard standing organization headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland that promotes the development of standards in the areas of intellectual, scientific, technological and commercial activity. For essential oils, ISO provides guidelines for packaging, conditioning, storage, labeling, sampling, testing and quality standards for individual essential oils.

Ellen – Im sorry but you are mistaken. Essential oils ARE able to be ingested in their purest, natural form. The FDA even acknowledges this and has its OWN list of Essential Oils Generally Recognized as Safe for human consumption. If needed I can gladly link you. The FDA has in fact gone after them, not for “practicing medicine”, but for some of the uneducated reps who made claims that EO’s cured Ebola. At the same time, Dr Bronners people among OTHER companies received the same letters. They also did not file anything, they have sent them letters with “their demands” and now these companies need to meet them. Do not make a mountain out of a mole hill. I am with Young Living oils- because I care where my product comes from.
I’ve used YL and DōTERRA and a few other unheard of brands of essential oils and you have got to check out Ameo Essential oils! It’s a brand new company and I’ve been very impressed with the quality of their oils. Another neat thing they do is show results of the testing of every batch of their oils to prove that they are the same high quality, pure, clinical standard oil as used in research and testing. The scientific research is just amazing with these oils.
I have enjoyed reading the continued conversation on this thread. Thank you, Lindalu for your comment about YL not training their people in aromatherapy–but just their version. I have been frustrated about the same thing, as I am beginning to realize that there are a bunch of rookies all around me (myself included), that are almost mindlessly using YL essential oils–even in potentially harmful ways–without having a clue as to what makes them tick!
“The first data set used by DeStefano et.al represents a huge lost opportunity to understand any role between the timing of the first MMR vaccine and autism. The re-analysis presented here elucidates effects that should at least merit further investigation. Specifically, increased risks of earlier vaccination are observed for African-American males and among cases of autism without MR. Both phenomena deserve additional study that could yield important clues regarding the current enormous increase in autism.”
As we mentioned earlier, the FDA generally classifies essential oils as cosmetics, but they can also sometimes be considered drugs. In a quote direct from the US Food and Drug Administration website, “The law doesn’t require cosmetics to have FDA approval before they go on the market.” In addition, if a product claims to affect the health and function of the body, such as relieving anxiety, aiding digestion or calming sore muscles, the product must be approved by the FDA as a drug, which is a very long and costly process.
Let's just think about this logically for a second. Let's imagine you rub poison ivy on your skin and you get a really bad rash. Is that just your body detoxing? Of course not. Come on people, if you get a rash or burn from putting something on your skin its because its IRRITATING YOUR SKIN. Furthermore, this "detox" explanation seems to ignore the very definition of what it means to detox. Generally, a detox reaction is a response that the body undergoes when it has something TAKEN AWAY from it. Think of the body of a drug addict "detoxifying" during the withdrawal process as he tries to get off the drugs. But in the case of using an essential oil on your skin we are ADDING something new to our bodies that your body has no prior experience with, any bad reaction could not logically be classified as a detox reaction.
Wholesale essential oils are not all created equal and although many companies claim they sell pure oils, most don't. True essential oils are very expensive to produce, and many companies in the industry take shortcuts to save on costs. At Bulk Apothecary, we offer 100% pure high-grade aromatherapy essential oils at affordable prices. We are one of the largest importers and domestic purchasers of many of these oils and offer them at some of the best prices available.  Other companies cut their essential oils with much cheaper carrier oils in order to sell them at a huge profit.  However, if you really want to yield the aromatherapeutic benefits that aromatherapy oils have to offer, it is important to only buy premium quality product. If you are purchasing oils that have been diluted without your knowledge, you won’t be able to use them as effectively as possible, and you won’t see the same benefits.
People who are new to natural, alternative or holistic medicine may have a bit of a learning curve in using essential oils in holistic ways. Based as much on intuition as hard and fast techniques, the holistic use of essential oils can sometimes be more art than science. Addressing the underlying cause of disease can be slower, less direct and more ambiguous than focusing solely on the symptoms. However, addressing the root cause of disease holistically holds the promise of true and lasting healing. It is therefore best to combine both medicinal and holistic medicine together, using one to complement the other.

Essential oils can be considered, fundamentally, as medication. Although derived from plants and natural resources they are still used as treatment for health ailments. The oil’s high concentration makes them very powerful and potentially dangerous substances if used incorrectly. It is imperative that you do thorough research before using any essential oil, because if used improperly they can cause serious health issues like allergic reactions, rashes, burns and long-term internal damage. The temptation to self-diagnose and self-prescribe can be a great influence in using essential oils, but without professional diagnosis and supervision you run a risk of causing yourself harm. With that in mind here are some very important guidelines to follow:
After dong much research and reading many reviews. Native American nutritional’s is the choice of most that use essential oils commercially. Do terra is 2nd and young living is right up there. Most professional’s don’t even want to touch young living and other pyramid marketing companies. A friend sells young living so I did get a bottle of valor from her. I have a variety of brands that i found through research just to try them. From what I’ve read, young living and doterra are so expensive because of how they are marketed. Not because they are superior.
Not all essential oils are created equally, nor does more expensive necessarily mean “better.” There are certain brands I will use in a less therapeutic fashion (like for cleaning), because they’re far less expensive than their counterparts. When you see a wide fluctuation in price between, say, lavender essential oils, you can bet that the far less expensive one is likely lower in quality.
While I hope very much that the essential oils that they sell are of high quality, the fact that they are creating this misleading marketing scheme does not give me high hopes for their credibility as a company.  As a general rule of thumb, I would think twice before sourcing from a company that claims their essential oils are "certified therapeutic grade."  They are either completely naive and pretending to have a certification that doesn't exist, or they are not naive and are pretending to have a certification that does not exist.  Either way, not promising.  
Diffusion is the process of dispersing essential oils so that their aroma fills a room or an area with the essential oil fragrance. Therefore, a diffuser is a device that diffuses the essential oil into the air. There are several types of diffusers available on the market in 2018, and many have reviews that may help you decide which one may be right for you, if you are interested in getting a diffuser.
Fair for Life goes beyond traditional fair trade by applying fair trade principles also to relevant domestic or regional trade and by requiring ethical working conditions along the entire trade chain. Fair for Life certified products are only handled by companies that demonstrate decent working conditions for all their staff. Fair for Life brand holder companies commit to fair sourcing practices and responsibilities towards their primary producers down the commodity chain. Fair for Life certification of products also confirms traceability of all certified products from production to sales.
The ISO/AFNOR standard for lavender essential oil recommends two cultivars used to meet the specific needs of perfume manufacturers. Their recommended composition of lavender oil favors the low camphor Reya and Munstead types for fine fragrance use precisely because these do not have the depth, nor complexity of constituents, that other legitimate lavender oils commonly used in aromatherapy have. That standard notably does not allow the use of all four of the major cultivars of Lavandula angustifolia (formerly known as Lavandula officinalis) used by aromatherapists: the Vera, Munstead, Silver and Raya cultivars. It also excludes many minor subspecies of L. angustifolia.

Topical applications: massage oils, and bath and skin care products are absorbed through the skin. Massaging the area where the oil is to be applied can boost circulation and increase absorption. Some argue that areas that are richer in sweat glands and hair follicles, such as the head or the palms of the hand, may absorb the oils more effectively.


“USE ESSENTIAL OILS TO HELP YOUR MOOD. Lavender, peppermint, grapefruit, chamomile, lemon, ylang-ylang all help produce happy, joyous moods. Clary sage helps with PMS (although there have been reports that overuse of clary sage can lead to intoxication). Rosemary increases focus and concentration. Don’t forget the mood benefits of essential oils. Here’s an information packed aromatherapy reference chart to refer to.”


I bought frontier brand cinnamon flavoring at a health food store. Is this cinnamon considered an essential oil? It says to use a few drops in baking cookies, cakes and other recipes, or 2 Tbsp. in a quart in a quart of simmering water with cloves and cinnamon sticks for relaxation. I have been using 1/4tsp. to 1/2tsp and sometimes more several times a day on cereals, tea and other foods thinking it might help control my blood sugar which was edging up in the pre-diabetes range. Is it safe to be consuming this much (organic sunflower oil and organic cinnamon oil are the 2 ingredients listed on bottle) in this manner?

I have nothing to do with this company. Furthermore, I did not spend much time writing about doTerra – and by the way, the term “bashing” is generally reserved for propaganda, i.e., baseless claims based on no evidence, such as yours. As a health care provider, when I come up against an anti-science claim that could be dangerous for consumers, I do take a good look at the evidence and the claims – and when the opportunity arises, I do let people know what I found.
Allergens are almost always composed of proteins or polypeptides, which are relatively large molecules. There are no proteins or polypeptides in essential oils. In fact, nitrogen containing compounds are virtually non-existent in essential oils except in occasional trace amounts. Allergens are composed of large molecules. There are no large molecules in volatile or aromatic oils, otherwise they would be neither volatile or aromatic.

Disclosure: I have chosen not to disclose the company I was in contact with as I don't think it's particularly important. I want to leave it to you to ask the questions and get answers that make sense for you. I am by no means an essential oil expert and so I rely heavily on the decades of experience of the experts that I work with and consulted with for this article.  I am an affiliate of an essential oil company that I trust.  I am not using my affiliate link or naming names in this article as my intention is not to profit off sharing this information but to empower you to really dig in and find your own answers so that you can use oils you trust as part of your healthy life.
Horrible burn from acupuncture and essential oils followed by tanning. No one told me essential oils can be photo activated up have a horrible disfiguring burn on the backs of my knees my feet and my chest where I had acupuncture and essential oils DO NOT TAN AFTER ESSENTIAL OIL USE! If I could upload photos I would it’s horrible I have a huge blister on my foot
I just started using EO’s, several of my friends sell YL EO’s and that is all they recommend, however, doing my own research I’ve settled on Mountain Rose Herb. The EO’s are great quality and are resonable. I’ve bought twice as much for half the price. I like MRH because it is organic, sustainable and fair trade. Use your own judgement and choose what you think is best. I will say this, everytime I’m on facebook and some one asks about EO’s I do recommend MRH with no sales pitch, just “try MRH” and almost the next post is a marketing speech telling the same person about YL and why they are the only ones to go with. So like I said, do your research and I’d say “try MRH”
Resins and complex combinations of terpenes are released by some plants and trees, such as evergreens, to act as antimicrobial, antifungal, and antibacterial agents against a wide range of organisms that may threaten the survival of the plants. Compounds such as sesquiterpene lactones found in plants such as feverfew, yarrow, and blessed thistle, have been found to play a strong antimicrobial role as well as a protective role from herbivores.

Storage: Once they receive their shipments directly from the distiller (no middlemen) they immediately pour them into amber-colored bottles, then they remove the oxygen by filling the remaining space in the bottles with nitrogen before placing them in cold storage; this drastically reduces oxidation and greatly enhances the shelf-life and vibrancy of the oils. And if that weren’t special enough, Joy and Cynthia literally hand-pour every bottle to order. What this means is, the essential oil stays in cold storage, with nitrogen, until you place your order, only then will the oil be poured custom into the tiny 15mL amber bottle, just for you! No one else takes such pride and care.
Demeter stands for products of the biological-dynamic economy way, which is the most sustainable form of land cultivation and ensures the continuous growth of the humus layer. As an international organic brand, Demeter is represented on every continent. The Demeter guidelines for biological-dynamic cultivation is in 38 countries and more than 3,500 companies with an area of around 100,000 hectare accepted. TAOASIS® is a member of the Demeter association for many years now.
There are so many essential oil brands on the market today it is indeed a huge industry. However, not all oils are created equal, and in fact most brands are simply not pure. They are often made synthetically, offering no benefits to your health and with some experts saying that they are in fact very toxic. Many “natural” smelling products don’t contain anything natural – no pure oils at all, just fake scents made in a lab.
In any form, using essential oils as green pesticides rather than synthetic pesticides has ecological benefits such as decreased residual actions.[30] In addition, increased use of essential oils as pest control could have not only ecological, but economical benefits as the essential oil market diversifies[29] and popularity increases among organic farmers and environmentally conscious consumers.[28]
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