Many EO users don’t know this because Ameo has only been around for a little over a year, but clinical-grade is the highest EO grade available in the U.S. They are extensively tested to make sure the quality is as high as those oils used in clinical testing or even higher potency. I’ve used most other brands, and know what I know now I would absolutely never use another brand internally unless they were certified organic because of the risk of getting synthetic ingredients and toxins. However, using just ‘organic’ oils does NOT ensure that you have the highest potency/efficacy which you can be sure of when you use Ameo. If you watch the videos on the website you’ll understand more about it. There are videos of the oils penetrating human cells posted for every single batch of oils from Ameo.
There is a Cinnamon essential oil, however the flavoring kind you get at a grocery store is not an essential oil in that it isn’t therapeutic grade so it has no therapeutic benefits. Many of these are made with synthetic oils (though not all of them) that just taste like what you want and all of these kind of oils have lots of filler oil like the sunflower oil. This does make it ok that you are using so much though. 🙂 If it were real therapeutic grade essential oil that much of it would be such a strongly concentrated flavor that you’d cut back to a drop or two really quick. It also would be an unsafe health choice to take such a large dose of any therapeutic grade oil no matter the type, source, or purity. I do hope that it helps anyway, but I can vouch for the pure therapeutic grade cinnamon along with lemon EO helping control my blood sugar levels. I love essential oils. Aren’t they great?
When the 4 p.m. slump strikes, reboot by sniffing an invigorating scent blend—or better yet, spritzing yourself with an oil-infused face mist. Take your pick of scents that can help you double-down on the rest of the workday: One study shows that sniffing rosemary can increase memory by 75% while peppermint has also been associated with recall as well as sustained focus. Other research has shown that peppermint, basil, and helichrysum help with burnout and mental fatigue.
Meanwhile, ill-informed at-home users may misuse them. One group of concerned aromatherapists, at the Atlantic Institute for Aromatherapy, began collecting injury reports online. Since the fall of 2013, it has found more than 268, ranging from mild rashes and anaphylactic shock to internal chemical burns from using oils to treat vaginal yeast infections. In 2017 alone, 55 people, including five children and two pregnant women, reported serious reactions. (The organization estimates that fewer than 5 to 10% of adverse reactions are reported.)
Rachael Armstrong, a 44-year-old mother of five from Omaha, NE, learned this the hard way last year. After weeks of rubbing grapefruit oil on her feet as an appetite suppressant and spiking her water and laundry detergent with lemon oil, she developed a severe sensitivity to the sun that left her with blisters and welts after just a few minutes exposed to its rays. “I admit I was probably overusing them,” she says. “But I don’t think people are aware that even though they’re natural products, they can do real damage.”
This is really a good synopsis of important things to know, good job!! Just wanted to correct one point though. According to essential oil expert Robert Tisserand, being allergic to , say, ginger tea does NOT necessarily mean you’d be allergic to ginger essential. Plants and their corresponding EO’s do not necessarily have the same properties or actions. A patch test can be done if one is concerned about the possibility of being allergic to an essential oil.

This was such a great education for me, honestly I didn’t know a thing about essential oils, and I am such an avid gardener!! I will look at all my plants differently from now on. I love it that the oils are their essence and life blood. I was looking for something to drop into my drinks while in Peru for 2 months so I don’t get traveler’s tummy or heaven forbid, on-going diarrhea. Would you recommend Grape Seed Oil Extract as being the most reliable or the Thieve’s Oil that I read about on-line. Or generally speaking they are not for internal use which it seems you are saying. Thanks so much.


Since we are not chemists, nor do we have the resources or equipment to evaluate the chemical purity of the essential oils, we stuck with methods of evaluation available to the average consumer. Out of the nearly 40 different essential oil companies researched we were able to narrow down the list to a total of seven reputable companies by using the parameters listed above in our section ‘What to look for when purchasing essential oils.’
Some consumers add essential oils to their baths, or use them as home remedies, such as inhaling eucalyptus vapors to relieve congestion.Others may place the oils in a diffuser to scent the air — peppermint is promoted for stimulating alertness, and lavender is often listed as a way to promote calmness, although there are no rigorous studies to support such claims.
Clary sage is the essential oil that is most widely used to treat vision problems. It is placed in the eye, so advice from an optometrist is important before use. Clary sage is used as a cleanser for the eyes. It can also be used to clear eye sight due to foggy vision or an injury to the eyes. Clary sage can also be used to brighten the eyes and improve vision. Finally, it can have beneficial results for people with eye issues related to aging.”
Mountain Rose Herbs also holds quite a few certifications and awards pertaining to their product sourcing, including non-GMO project certification, and the 2013 Best Green Business’s To Work For In Oregon. Overall, this company is making quite a few awesome commitments to better, green business practices and if you like this ideology, this is your company to support.
“This study is a re-analysis of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) data pertaining to the relationship of autism incidence and the age at which children got their first measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine. Statistically significant relationships were observed when African-American males were considered separately while looking at those individuals who were vaccinated prior to and after a 36-month age cut-off. CDC officials observed very similar relationships as early as November 2001, but failed to report them in their final publication. In addition, a relationship is seen when specifically considering children who received a diagnosis of autism without mental retardation. Although this was reported in the original 2004 paper, it was not discussed, nor was any follow-up study conducted. Preliminary results also suggest the possibility of a synergism between thimerosal exposure and MMR timing leading to a greater risk of autism.”
Have you ever wondered, “What are the best essential oil brands”? Who should you buy your essential oils from and why? Those are very good questions! There are variations in quality, standards of production, company culture, price, and product selection among many of the popular essential oil brands available today. I want to highlight what sets apart one essential oil company over another, and which ones would be the best essential oil brands to start buying from.
Chemical constituents of Boswellia sacra essential oil fractions were dependent on duration and temperature of hydrodistillation. For example, when essential oils collected from 0–2 h (Fraction I), 8–10 h (Fraction II), and 11–12 h (Fraction III) at 78°C were compared, longer distillation produced higher percentages of sesquiterpenes, between alpha-copaene and caryophyllene oxide (Table? 1). All three fractions were primarily composed of monoterpenes (82.77-90.67%), including alpha-thujene, beta-pinene, and myrcene. Among the monoterpenes, alpha-pinene was the major compound present in all essential oil fractions, ranging from 65.49% to 78.45%. As anticipated, the abundance of alpha-pinene decreased with longer and higher temperature distillation due to its highly volatile nature. Compounds such as borneol, dimethyl ether orcinol, allo-aromadendrene, gamma-cadinene, and caryophyllene oxide were only present in Fraction III essential oil…
In the article above this blog there is a link that will take you to 19 essential oils that can be used on babies and children. I looked at it, and the URL is http://www.abundanthealth4u.com Everything I have read about using essential oils on children stresses the importance of proper dilution. Be careful if you decide you want to do this. The word “therapeutic” is tossed around like pizza dough, and it really doesn’t have a scientific meaning when applied to EO’s.
Amanda, I don’t know what your qualification is to make such a bold statement. MANY, MANY, MANY, MANY people use Young Living oils internally WITHOUT adverse side effects and WITHOUT burning their esophagus or hurting their gut flora, in fact it improves gut flora if you know what oils to use. Oils ingested are usually done so via a veggie capsule or can be mixed with water or Young Living’s NingXia Red. I myself ingest YLEOs on a daily basis and have been able to get off my proton-pump inhibitor (PPI) medication for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), which was causing the nice side effect of osteopenia (pre osteoporosis). If you know what you’re doing and do the research, oils are extremely beneficial without nasty side effects. Yes, I am a YL distributor, but I became one after using the oils for a while myself and on my pets and seeing great improvement in our situation. Hope that clears up the ingestion issue for you.
I realize that it’s been a while since you posted this question, but hope this information helps anyway. My poor husband had the same problem with leg cramps. Took supplements for potassium and ate bananas and oranges like crazy. No difference. Heard then that the deficiency that causes these cramps is more likely related to magnesium, so he started taking a magnesium supplement. Still no difference.
In short: DO NOT TAKE ESSENTIAL OILS INTERNALLY unless they have been prescribed to you individually by a qualified and clinically-trained medical professional or Clinical Registered Aromatherapist. When working with essential oils you are ultimately playing with chemistry; if you do not know the specific chemistry of the specific oils, and what that specific collection of chemical constituents in that oil can do to your body, then avoid internal administration and stick with the aromatic processes.
It’s been a few months since you posted, and I hope you are feeling better! My youngest is now 10 and I am JUST now, as I am learning about my peri-menopausal experience, getting an understanding on my postpartum experience. I struggled for months with each kid and now I am pretty sure the base-line physical issue was hormonal imbalance. I have been taking a product from Young Living called Progessence Plus, and it has been a life-saver– I wish I had it when I was postpartum. Look it up, theres a PDF by Dr. Dan Purser talking about the product that answers a lot of questions and helped me a lot when I was researching. There are other oils from YL that help a lot with hormonal issues, Dragon Time, Schlaressence, Lady Schlerol. (Use my distributer #1112524 🙂 if you want to buy from YL)
Any essential oil business that cares about selling only pure essential oils will have their oils tested with at least two tests, usually run simultaneously, the gas chromatography and mass spectrometry tests, or GC/MS.  Responsible essential oil vendors will run these tests on every batch of oil they receive from a distiller. Many of these vendors provide batch-specific GC/MS reports on their websites, and some others will provide them on request, sometimes for a nominal fee. Some high quality essential oil vendors do not provide these reports, but those that do are prefered by trained aromatherapists.
“No vaccine manufacturer shall be liable…for damages arising from a vaccine-related injury or death.” – President Ronald Wilson Reagan, as he signed The National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act (NCVIA) of 1986, absolving drug companies from all medico-legal liability when children die, become chronically ill with vaccine-induced autoimmune disorders or are otherwise disabled from vaccine injuries. (That law has led directly to an expected reckless, liability-free development of scores of new, over-priced, potential block-buster vaccines, now numbering over 250. The question that must be asked of Big Medicine’s practitioners: How will the CDC, the AMA, the AAFP and the American Academy of Pediatrics fit any more potentially neurotoxic vaccines into the current well-baby over-vaccination schedule?)
Wonderful information! I just started researching oils and I want to use him for my classroom I’ve also wondered about using them around my cats I know some essential oils are not safe for cats I would never put them on topically, however I diffuse them in my bedroom and they sleep with me Do you have any insight on this topic? Thanks again for such great information !!

Hannah, all the multi-level-marketing companies say that theirs are the only true and pure essential oils. But, they all buy from the same distillers and wholesale suppliers as every other aromatherapy business. (And notice how they will spin stories that make it sound as if they buy all their oils from unique sources…) Somehow they have to justify their much higher prices, which are needed to support the MLM business model. Their products are similarly priced. Great quality, but you can get the same great quality from many other sources, with less hype, and less mark-up.

You sound so anti-DoTerra that you lose all credibility. You sound like you’ve invested so much in time and effort in bashing DoTerra, that you’d keep bashing them no matter what research was done on their oils. I don’t really care what your background is, you’ve lost all credibility by the way that you’ve vehemently bashed the DoTerra company completely. Do you know what Medical Doctor’s do as research? They try out things, and look at the results. My results in using DoTerra oils compared with other oils is that they have worked better. I haven’t used all the different brands, but out of the ones I’ve used, DoTerra have given me the best results. It’s not unsafe to ingest certain essential oils, at all. It’s like saying that it’s unsafe to ingest tylenol, or ibuprofen. It’s not unsafe when done in the proper quantities. You’re ignorant by denouncing a companies’ product just because of the way that they’ve chosen to market it. By the way, DoTerra has grown into a company with more than 100 million dollars in sales per year in just 6 years, marketing the way that they do. I think they’ve made wise business decisions up to this point by marketing the way that they have. I don’t sell DoTerra, because I’m not interested in doing sales, at all. But, their oils work really well, and I personally have seen great benefits from using them.

In a quote from aromatherapy expert, David Crow, he writes, “[T]he antimicrobial effects of essential oils are most potent not when the oil is used in liquid form… but when pathogens are exposed to the vapors of the oils.” Not only do the oils clean the air and get into your nose, but they are also penetrating your skin, getting into your bloodstream, protecting and healing you.


Lortscher says that the purity of different EO’s can vary widely, based on the degree of concentration and where they’re sourced from. "On top of that, the quality of your oils can be affected by adulteration (the purposeful addition of foreign substances), unintentional contamination, inadequate production, or improper storage conditions," he says. "If you keep an essential oil exposed to bright sunlight or oxygen, the composition of the oil can change. It’s best to store them in a cool, dark place."
Take peppermint for example. Peppermint is distilled from the whole peppermint plant and is sourced indigenously from the northwestern United States. The ratio of the constituents menthol to menthone is used as a marker for high quality peppermint oil. Certified Pure Therapeutic Grade® peppermint oil should always have a significantly higher proportion of menthol because menthol has been shown to improve the beneficial value of peppermint essential oil. One study tested the cleansing properties of peppermint essential oil from three different species. Peppermint from Mentha piperita was demonstrated to have the highest cleansing properties, which was attributed to its high amount of menthol and low amounts of menthone. Conversely, the Mentha aquatica species was shown to have significantly lower cleansing properties and also had a lower amount of menthol and a higher amount of menthone. (Mimica-Dukić N, Et Al. 2003)
Used the right way, they can help you feel better with few side effects. For example, you may feel less nauseated from chemotherapy cancer treatment if you breathe in ginger vapors. You may be able to fight certain bacterial or fungal infections, including the dangerous MRSA bacteria, with tea tree oil. In one study, tea tree oil was as effective as a prescription antifungal cream in easing symptoms of a fungal foot infection.
Because essential oils are obviously all-natural, it might be easy to assume that they're gentle and largely unreactive. This isn't the case at all—by definition, it's extremely potent stuff. "On average, they are up to 75 times more powerful than dried herbs," says Avery. As such, "essential oils must be handled with care." This means that a couple drops go a long way, and aside from very specific oils (more on that later), essential oils should always be diluted properly before applying them directly to skin. Whether or not essential oils should be ingested is actually a highly debated topic, and many argue that it isn't safe unless specifically advised by a doctor or expert.
According to Wildwood, “A common myth in aromatherapy is that massage oils containing essential oils such as Clary sage, rose or even rosemary can cause a miscarriage and hence should be avoided throughout pregnancy." Authors such as Ron Guba, Kurt Schnaubelt, and Chrissie Wildwood have all pointed out that there have been ‘no recorded cases of miscarriage or birth defect resulting from aromatherapy massage using therapeutic applications of any essential oil.”12
NOTE: Much of the information in this column is derived from easily accessible books and websites, including Make an Informed Vaccine Decision for the Health of Your Child by Mayer Eisenstein, MD, JD, MPH; The Sanctity of Human Blood: Vaccination is Not Immunization, by Tim O’Shea,  DC; Screening Sandy Hook, Causes and Consequences by Deanna Spingola (an online e-book); the writings and lectures of Russell Blaylock, MD; Immunologist J. Barthelow Classen, MD; Harold E Buttram, MD, Dr Sherri Tenpenny, Dr Suzanne Humphries, Dr Kenneth Stoller, Dr Andrew Wakefield, Dr Mark Geier, and Dr Joseph Mercola, and the following two articles: http://www.vaccines.net/vaccine-induced-immune-overload.pdf. http://www.globalresearch.ca/vaccine-induced-immune-overload-and-the-epidemic-of-chronic-autoimmune-childhood-disease/5431013.
HOWEVER, I am bombarded on all sides by YL folks (or doTerra folks, etc.) who emphatically state that I will be poisoning my body if I use anyone else’s oils TOPICALLY or INTERNALLY–even if these smaller companies claim high, organic, rigidly tested standards. I am no chemist or scientist and I am at the mercy of believing (or not believing) what all these essential oil companies tell me.
So, what’s your take on companies like Young Living Oil, which basically give me the vibe of “our oil is the only true and pure one out there”. I’m not sold on the idea, and don’t know that I’ll be purchasing anything other than their Thieves blend, when it comes to EOs for my soaps, lotions, and salves. I know you’re mainly addressing aromatherapy and massage here, but would the same principles apply to homemade healthcare products, as well?
Ron Guba points out that toxicity during pregnancy is almost exclusively due to pregnant women taking large, toxic doses of essential oils, notably pennyroyal (rich in the ketone, pulegone, which is metabolized to the highly toxic furan epoxide, menthofuron) and parsley seed (rich in the dimethyl ether, apiol) in an attempt to abort the fetus.13 And Battaglia shares this insight: “the judicious use of essential oils together with appropriate forms of massage by a skilled therapist can help ease the discomforts of pregnancy and provide a sense of nurturing that will comfort the mother at times she is likely to be feeling rather fragile.”14
"Synthetic essential oils may seem like a bargain," says Rupinder Mangat, CEO of Mevei. "It can be difficult to tell the difference between a synthetic oil or a real one. But be careful—chemically reconstructed oils seldom include all the trace chemicals that are found in the real plant. Price can be an indication that an oil is synthetically reproduced or extended."
Plants, like other living things, need to protect themselves from various types of predators. Plants use terpenoid compounds to deter insects and other animals from approaching them. Shawe pointed out that “insects are very rarely found on peppermint plants and the presence of linalol in the peel of citrus fruits confers resistance to attack by the Caribbean fruit fly.” 5 The Douglas fir tree releases a complex mixture of volatile oils, or terpenes, from their needles to defend against the spruce budworm. Even more fascinating is that the Douglas fir trees “will vary the composition and production of terpenes each year thus decreasing the ability of the budworm to develop widespread immunity to specific compounds.6
TAOASIS works close with local manufacturer together which produce with loving handwork scent flowers, scent woods and vases. Especially products from german manufacturers are successful on the market at home and abroad. More and more customers are looking for a special quality, appreciate the transparent production process and the possibility to receive individual certificates.
After much internet research I found that high doses of magnesium helped. I currently take 1 tablespoon of “Calm” magnesium powder diluted in a cup of warm water every night before bed. Magnesium also helps with sleep. The magnesium has not been a cure all for me. I’ve also been going to an acupuncturist for the past 5 months which has also helped greatly but I still get the night cramps occasionally which is very upsetting. I’ve also found that caffeine and alcohol make matters worse so be careful with consumption of both.

Partly true. If an essential oil is distilled at too high a temperature, too low a temperature, or for too long, this *can* increase the concentration of toxic components or artifacts. But to say that *any* improperly distilled component is toxic is simply not true. Toxicity is not determined by whether a substance is a genuine essential oil constituent. Toxic constituents can also be formed during normal distillation, hydrocyanic acid (“cyanide”) being the classic example – in bitter almond oil.
Thank you so much for this. I am being bombarded by doterra reps right now. I believe in essential oils but dislike mlm companies because they are so overpriced to pay down tge food line. I do have a few purchased from some others you have mentioned above and some not. Now I have a good place to start to build my own kits and feel confudent it will be a good oil. Thank you again.
Yes, many companies do GC/MS testing and infrared. The real test is, what do they compare the results to and what is that company’s standard for what a good oil is? If their standard is high, then they may reject oils which are below that standard. If their standard is not so high, then they will accept and sell more oils, even ones that have been rejected by a company with higher standards.
Thank you so much for this excellent distillation! I’m just beginning to use EO’s, and have had such excellent results that I am encouraged to try more — thank you for helping me find reputable companies to purchase from. The pricing comparison was especially helpful. My only issue so far is with Aura Cacia — the lids are so hard to get off the bottles — my 71 year old hands just can’t exert that much pressure any more — I emailed the company thru their website, and was sent alternative bottle caps, that didn’t even fit the bottles. Alas, not buying from them any more, which is unfortunate, since they are readily available in local stores. However, online ordering is easy and quick. Thank you once again!
Hi Robert, Thanks for all of this information. I am looking to use Essential Oils internally. I am looking to use the citrus oils (orange, lemon, lime) to mix into beverages with water and sugar like a fruit punch. I understand that unless ingested shortly after stirring, I will need an emulsifier to keep the oil from separating and concentrating. I am still a bit hesitant however due to the amount of articles online warning against ingestion. Provided a reasonable dose is used, is there really anything to be afraid of. And do you know of any good sources for edible oils (organic or not) besides the 2 MLMs who make their meaningless “therapeutic grade” claims? Cheers.
If you're feeling confused, stick with the basics. "Lavender oil is a great EO for beginners. You can inhale it before sleeping, pour a few drops into a diffuser, or rub it onto your pressure points (neck, wrists, and other places where your pulse is most prominent). Plenty of studies have been done on lavender oil to demonstrate its efficacy," Trattner says.
Hi Dave, So sorry to hear about the medical issues your family is facing. There is quite a bit written about using essential oils for cancer though I don’t have the info at my finger tips. I would be happy to see if I can find more info on where to direct you if you haven’t already found it. If you have an email or Facebook or some other way to be reached it might be a better way to converse. But either way one place you can go to get some ideas about other peoples experiences with various oils is oil-testimonials.com you can sign up for the free membership and then do searches on whatever you would like.”leukemia” “child leukemia” “Crohns” etc. It was formed for people using YL oils to share so some of the blends mentioned will be YL but it doesn’t mean you have to use YL to get the results. High quality oils are high quality oils, that said quality is so important especially when talking about treating something as major as the things you are and in my experience YL does produce high quality oils. I myself have treated Tertiary Chronic Lyme and having used both traditional antibiotics (IV, pills, suspension and sometimes all at the same time) and essential oils and can attest to the oils working as well as any other protocol I have been on without the side effects…well you probably see where I’m going. That doesn’t mean Young Living is the only company producing oils of that quality, they aren’t, nor does it mean I’m advocating the MLM approach, signing up was worth while for me to receive the discount since I order so many oils and I will sometimes order for other people at my discount but I have never pursued the business end of it. I also have and do use other companies oils and think investigating and having several sources is wise for various reasons. Anyway, sorry to go on so much your situation just struck a nerve. Feel free to contact me if you would like.
And, I’m not at all sure where the idea that “less than 2% of essential oils sold in health stores are appropriate for aromatherapy” comes from. This is quite simply pure and unadulterated fantasy! Perhaps the most common retail brand is Aura Cacia, and if you go to their website you will find 27 organically certified essential oils listed. A very high percentage of essential oils now sold for use in aromatherapy is organically certified, and some of the ones that are not are simply not available as certified organic oils. This not only applies in the USA, the same is true in most regions. Is an organically certified essential oil not suitable for aromatherapy?
Essential oils were once a small market product available mainly through trained aromatherapists and medicine men and women. With the massive production scale we are now seeing in oils, many are being grown as mono-crops requiring heavy amounts of pesticides, mass harvesting and in some cases irresponsible harvesting. This can both endanger plant species and hike the prices.
As a consultant to importers of high-quality Essential Oils, Andrea travels the world, building relationships with distillers and small organic farmers. In 2013, Andrea won the Alliance of International Aromatherapists's Lifetime Achievement Award for her heartfelt work in educating and connecting people involved in all aspects of the Aromatherapy industry – from renowned authors and distillers to those who are brand new to Essential Oils.

Plus, I don’t care how wonderful an EO is, I don’t think a certain combo is going to make someone “Thankful” or give them “Couraqe.” Those are personality traits, not a response to treatment. Seems a bit hokey to me. I just gave her the catalog back and didn’t say much. The MLM system is designed to make people antagonize their friends into feeling obligated to purchase stuff.

The notion of using essential oils as a replacement for standard medical therapy is not new. Today’s essential oils are yesterday’s herbal remedies. They’re your grandmother’s swamp root, your great-grandmother’s liver pills and your great-great-grandmother’s snake oil (hey, at least we made it back to oil). And as in those days, somebody’s getting rich selling their wares. Why? Because there will always be folks who claim they work and others who buy into the claim looking for a quick fix. My question for believers in the crowd: how do you know the remedy really did the job? Runny noses get better. Coughs and bellyaches go away. Rashes clear up, skin heals and behavior fluctuates.


dōTERRA essential oils was founded in 2008 by a group of health-care and business professionals, some of which used to work at Young Living. The founders all shared profound personal experiences with the life-enhancing benefits of essential oils. As per their mission statement, they strive to “bring a new standard of therapeutic-grade essential oils to the world”.
First buy a Bed Bug Proof cover for your mattress, it will trap them and they can’t get out to bite you and will eventually die off. Then sprinkle diatomaceous earth around the baseboards of the room then put in a small dish under each foot of the bed. If you have residual bed bugs in the room they won’t be able to crawl up the bed legs without going through the diatomaceous earth which cuts them and kills them. I tried several pest control companies that sprayed the bedroom to no avail. The diatomaceous earth does the trick and is organic! I’ve done this twice and it worked both times!
Although highly fragrant, concretes contain large quantities of non-fragrant waxes and resins. Often, another solvent, such as ethyl alcohol, is used to extract the fragrant oil from the concrete. The alcohol solution is chilled to −18 °C (0 °F) for more than 48 hours which causes the waxes and lipids to precipitate out. The precipitates are then filtered out and the ethanol is removed from the remaining solution by evaporation, vacuum purge, or both, leaving behind the absolute.
×